- Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, 1989
- M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 1982
- B.S., Chemical Engineering and Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, Vanderbilt University (Magna Cum Laude), 1980
- Plasma Reaction Engineering
- Metabolic Engineering in Muscle
Plasma Reaction Engineering - A non-thermal plasma is a system of highly ionized species which are on average electrically neutral and where the temperature of the free electrons greatly exceeds the temperature of the background species. This type of plasma can be produced, for example, by a high voltage electrical discharge. Non-thermal plasma has the advantage that the electrical energy of the discharge is directed primarily into increasing the kinetic energy of the electrons rather than to heating the background gaseous species. These highly energetic electrons can be used for a number of purposes, mostly dealing with initiating desirable chemical reactions in bulk gases or liquids, or on the surfaces of solids. For example, gas phase discharges can be used to reduce, or oxidize - depending upon the chemical environment, hazardous and toxic gases such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. Gas phase electrical discharges have also been used commercially for the production of ozone for many years. Electrical discharges made in contact with liquid water have recently been used to oxidize small aromatic organic species as well as make nano-particles and treat biological tissue.
The major focus of our research on electrical discharge processes is directed towards environmental, biomedical, and energy applications. The major objectives are to develop a fundamental understanding of the plasma chemical processes occurring in electrical discharge plasma in multiphase environments, particularly in gas-liquid (water) systems. We are currently focusing on the fundamental aspects of the design, chemical analysis, and operation of plasma reactors with water aerosol spray. This work is currently supported by the National Science Foundation.
Metabolic Engineering in Muscle - Muscle cells are highly organized and designed structures that have a large diversity across the animal kingdom. We are current working on the analysis of the effects of cell structure and metabolite diffusion on the chemical reactions involved in aerobic energy metabolism. Mathematical models of the chemical reaction networks in muscle have been developed to describe the diffusion and reaction processes of primary energy metabolites in the complex structure of the muscle. The modeling work is closely coupled to the experimental data obtained by our biology collaborator, Dr. Steve Kinsey (UNC - Wilmington). The overall goal is to develop our understanding of the spatial and kinetic parameters that control metabolism in normal and diseased tissue. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation and NIH.
Professional Affiliations & Qualifications
- Professor, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering
- Chair, ChE-BME, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering
- Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processes, Editorial Board
- Plasma Processes and Polymers, International Advisory Board
- Senior Member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
- Member of American Chemical Society
- Senior Member of IEEE
- Distinguished University Research Professor, Florida State University, 2010
- Patent Award, FAMU/FSU College of Engineering
- Engineering Research Award, FAMU/FSU College of Engineering
- Developing Scholar Award - Florida State University
- Invited visiting professor, Groupe Electrofluidodynamique Laboratoire d'Etudes Aerodynamiques, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France
- Invited Visiting Professor, Kumamoto University, Kyushu, Japan
Peer-reviewed Journal Articles: (2005 to present only, total >100)
- Sahni, M., W. C. Finney, and B. R. Locke, Degradation of Aqueous Phase Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) using Pulsed Corona Discharges, Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 8(1), 2005, 105-111.
- Pathi, P., T. Ma, B. R. Locke, Role of Nutrient Supply On Cell Growth in Bioreactor Design for Tissue Engineering of Hematopoietic Cells, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 89(7), 2005, 743-758.
- Koprivanac N, Kusic H, Vujevic D, Peternel I, Locke BR, Influence of iron on degradation of organic dyes in corona, Journal of Hazardous Materials 117 (2-3), 2005, 113-119.
- Lukes, P. and B. R. Locke, Degradation of Substituted Phenols in Hybrid Gas-Liquid Electrical Discharge Reactor, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44, 2005, 2921-2930.
- Kirkpatrick, M.J. and B. R. Locke, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide Formation in Aqueous Phase Pulsed Corona Electrical Discharge, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44, 2005, 4243-4248.
- Kušić, H., N. Koprivanac, I. Peternel, and B. R. Locke, Hybrid Gas/Liquid Electrical Discharge Reactors With Zeolites for Colored Wastewater Degradation, Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 8(2), 2005, 172-181.
- Kinsey, S., P. Pathi, K.M. Hardy, A. Jordan, and B. R. Locke, Does intracellular diffusive flux limit aerobic recovery in burst locomotor muscle?, Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 2005, 2641-2652.
- H. Kušić, N. Koprivanac, and B. R. Locke, Decomposition of Phenol by Hybrid Gas/Liquid Electrical Discharge Reactors with Zeolite Catalysts, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B125, 2005, 190-200.
- Lukes, P. and B. R. Locke, Degradation of Phenol in a Hybrid Series Gas-Liquid Electrical Discharge Reactor, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 38, 2005, 4074-4081.
- Zhao, F., P. Pathi, W. Grayson, Q. Xing, B. R. Locke, and T. Ma, Effects of Nutrient Transport on 3-D Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Tissue Development in Perfusion and Static Cultures, Biotechnology Progress, 21, 2005, 1269-1280.
- Burlica, R., M. J. Kirkpatrick, and B. R. Locke, The Formation of Reactive Species in Gliding Arc Discharges with Liquid Water, Journal of Electrostatics, 64, 2006, 35-43.
- Locke, B.R., M. Sato, P. Sunka, M. Hoffmann, J.-S. Chang, Electrohydraulic Discharge and Non Thermal Plasma for Water Treatment, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 2006, 882-905. Featured on the ACS Publications website as a "Hot Paper" as defined by Thomson ISI's Essential Science Indicators.
- Kirkpatrick, M. J. and B. R. Locke, Effects of Platinum Electrode on Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide Formation in Aqueous Phase Pulsed Corona Electrical Discharge, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45 (6), 2006, 2138-2142.
- I. Peternel, H. Kusic, N. Koprivanac, and B. R. Locke, The Roles of Ozone and Zeolite on Reactive Dye Degradation in Electrical Discharge Reactors, Environmental Technology, 27, 2006, 545-557.
- M. Sahni and B. R. Locke, Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants Using Gas-Liquid Pulsed Streamer Discharges, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B137, 2006, 1025-1034.
- S. Međedović and B. R. Locke, Platinum Catalysed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide in Aqueous-Phase Pulsed Corona Electrical Discharge, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 67 2006, 149-159.
- M. Sahni, and B. R. Locke, Quantification of Reductive Species Produced By High Voltage Electrical Discharges In Water, Plasma Processing and Polymers, 3, 2006, 342.
- M. Sahni and B. R. Locke, Quantification of Hydroxyl Radicals Produced in Aqueous Phase Pulsed Electrical Discharge Reactors, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 2006, 5819-5825.
- K. M. Hardy, B. R. Locke, M. Da Silva, and S. T. Kinsey, A Reaction-Diffusion Analysis of Energetics in a Large Fiber Muscle Secondarily Evolved for Aerobic Locomotor Function, Experimental Biology, 209, 2006, 3610-3620.
- M. Sahni and B. R. Locke, The Effect of Reaction Conditions on Hydroxyl Radical Production In Gas-Liquid Pulsed Streamer Discharge Reactors, Plasma Processes and Polymers, by invitation, 3, 2006, 668-681.
- S. Međedović and B. R. Locke, The Role of Platinum as the High Voltage Electrode in the Enhancement of Fenton's Reaction in Liquid Phase Electrical Discharge, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 72, 2007, 342-350.
- S. Mededovic and B. R. Locke, Atrazine Degradation Using Pulsed Electrical Discharge in Water, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 2007, 2702-2709.
- S. Međedović, W. C. Finney, and B. R. Locke, Aqueous-Phase Mineralization of S-Triazine Using Pulsed Electrical Discharge, International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, invited for the premier issue of this journal, 1(1), 2007, 82-90.
- A. Nyack, B. R. Locke, A. Valencia, R. Dillaman, S. Kinsey, Scaling of post-contractile phosphocreatine recovery in white muscle of black sea bass, Centropristis striata, Applied Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292, 2007, R2077-R2088.
- S. T. Kinsey, K. M. Hardy and B. R. Locke, The long and winding road: intracellular diffusion, cellular organization, and limits to aerobic metabolism in muscle, Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 2007, 3505-3512.
- S. Međedović and B. R. Locke Primary Chemical Reactions in Pulsed Electrical Discharge Channels in Water, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 40, 2007, 7734-7746.
- S. Međedović, W. C. Finney, and B. R. Locke, Electrical Discharge in Mixtures of Light and Heavy Water, Plasma Processes and Polymers, 5(1), 2008, 76-83.
- F. Holzer and B. R. Locke, Influence of High Voltage Needle Electrode Material on Hydrogen Peroxide Formation and Electrode Erosion in a Hybrid Gas-Liquid Series Electrical Discharge Reactor, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 28 (2), 2008, 1-13.
- R. Burlica and B. R. Locke, Pulsed Plasma Gliding-Arc Discharges with Water Spray, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 44(2), March 2008, 83-89.
- F. Holzer and B. R. Locke, Decomposition of Organic Compounds in a Staged Gas-Liquid Electrical Discharge Column Reactor, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 2008, 2203-2212.
- B. R. Locke and S. T. Kinsey, Diffusional Constraints on Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 254(2), 2008, 417-429.
- A. G. Jimenez, B. R. Locke and S. T. Kinsey, The influence of oxygen and high-energy phosphate diffusion on metabolic scaling in three species of tail-flipping crustaceans, Journal of Experimental Biology, 211(20), 2008, 3214-3225.
- R. Burlica and B. R. Locke, Confined Plasma Gliding Arc Discharges, International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2(4/5) 2008, 484-498.
- K.Y. Shih, W.C. Finney, and B.R. Locke, Effect of Pressure on Discharge Initiation and Chemical Reaction in Liquid Phase Electrical Discharge Reactors, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 45(2) March/April 2009, 630-637.
- D. Porter, M. D. Poplin, F. Holzer, W. C. Finney, and B. R. Locke Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors with Water Spray, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 45(2) March/April, 2009, 623-629.
- B. R. Locke and S. M. Thagard, Analysis of Chemical Reactions in Gliding Arc Reactors with Water Spray, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 37(4) April 2009, 494-501.
- K. M. Hardy, R. M. Dillaman, B. R. Locke and S. T. Kinsey, A skeletal muscle model of extreme hypertrophic growth reveals the influence of diffusion on cellular design, American Journal of Physiology, 296(6) June 2009, R1855-R1867.
- K.-Y. Shih and B. R. Locke, Effects of Electrode Protrusion Length, Solution Conductivity and Temperature, and Pre-existing Bubbles on Liquid Phase Pulsed Electrical Discharge, Plasma Processes and Polymers, 6, 2009, 729-740.
- K.-Y. Shih and B.R. Locke, Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Pulsed Electrical Discharge within Gas Bubbles in Aqueous Solutions, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, published on-line, December 2009, 1572-8986 (Online), DOI 10.1007/s11090-009-9207-x.
- R. Burlica, R. G. Grim, K.-Y. Shih, D. Balkwill, and B. R. Locke, Bacteria inactivation using low power pulsed gliding arc discharges with water spray, Plasma Processes and Polymers, in press, 2010.