The latest version of this document is online at
eng.famu.fsu.edu or at
|The l2h help pages
||© Leon van Dommelen
Debian Linux 686 Installation Guide
WARNINGS: There is no warranty of any kind on this free software.
And there are copyrights by various authors.
This installation should work for Ubuntu and Debian linux 32 bit 686
versions (The author uses it on his own Intel Ubuntu system.) There
is also a 64 bit version. (But the 32 bit version will work on 64 bit
if you install compatibility libraries.) For other linux flavors, it
will only work for Intel linux versions that are binary compatible
with Debian 32/64 bit. For other systems, look at
installing on other operating
There is a graphical example installation
available, in case you want more help after reading the steps in the
next section. It installs everything you need from scratch on an
Ubuntu 13.04 machine. It starts with installing Ubuntu 13.04 (old
style), then all required software, not just l2h, and ends with fully
processing the example document.
Note: These instructions assume that you are installing l2h
through a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows you to click
files in folders and such. If you have no GUI, like when you are
using "Putty" or "ssh" to access a remote computer,
see nonGUI.html for how to compensate.
The installation involves the following basic steps
- Install tex-live including at least texlive-*-common,
texlive-*-base, and texlive-generic-recommended (you need epsf). If
you want to write in Greek or in non-Western-European languages, you
also need texlive-xetex, texlive-latex-extra, (including makecmds and
etoolbox), and the Linux Libertine O fonts. Also install tcsh, as
/usr/bin/tcsh, perl, ghostscript, pdftk, pdftops, and netpbm. You
would normally use your package manager (Synaptic, Ubuntu Software
Center, apt, dpkg, ...) to do these things. Note: LaTeX, perl, and
ghostscript are the minimum; l2h will not process any documents
- Login as the user you will be when processing LaTeX documents.
(If you want to install as root for multiple users, or use a RAM disk,
see the FAQ.)
(If you need the 64 bit version, use either
http://www.eng.famu.fsu.edu/~dommelen/l2h/l2h_deb6-64.zip.) This is
almost 20 Mbytes, or over 50 Mbytes unzipped. Have your download
manager extract the folder l2h to some suitable location. Your
desktop is a good location. (You cannot use l2h before you extract
it). Make sure your download manager keeps the directory (folder)
structure intact. Or else. (If unsure, create a temporary
folder on the desktop, call it temp. Move the zip file into temp and
extract it there. Or probably better, drag l2h out of l2h_....zip and
put it in temp. When done, drag folder l2h out of temp and delete
- Open the extracted folder l2h and double-click "install_l2h".
This opens a terminal. In the terminal type
and press Enter. That assumes that you extracted l2h to your desktop.
If you extracted it to your HOME folder, enter instead
If you extracted it somewhere else, use the corresponding cd command.
(Pressing the Tab key after "cd " is a helpful way to examine the
possible places to cd to.) (Note: some versions of linux, like
Xubuntu, will open the terminal already in the l2h folder. In that
case, there is no need to do the cd commands. Try "pwd" to check.)
- After a successful cd into the l2h folder, issue the command:
Follow the instructions on the screen. Normally, you just hit Enter
for each question. (If it complains about missing unix utilities,
install them and try again. This should not really happen though.
The used utilities are very basic unix ones.)
- If the installation does not create error messages, that should
be it. You should see a congratulatory message. If not, there was a
problem. A web page "how_to_get_started" should open in your default
browser. If not, open the web page manually. It is the "help-files"
folder of l2h.
L2h requires that terminals open as 24 lines of 80 characters (or
more). That should be the default. Unfortunately, it is not always.
If not, try playing with the settings in the terminal menu. After
changing the size to 80x24, you may need to press the "-" key to get
things to refresh.
It is recommended that you enable the terminal bell if possible.
The current way to do that on Ubuntu 12.04 is, no kidding,
Yes this is ridiculously complicated for a feature that should be
enabled in a terminal by default. That is a standard
requirement of most programming languages and scripting languages.
A user should have to turn the bell off, at the user's
- Turn the bell on in the Edit | Profile Preferences menu.
- Run gconf-editor (after installing it) and use it to change
desktop | gnome | peripherals | keyboard | bell_mode from "off" to
- Use the command "pactl upload-sample
/usr/share/sounds/gnome/default/alerts/glass.ogg bell.ogg" (without
the quotes.) You may want to put this in an .xprofile file
in your home folder.
- Put the "xset b 100" command in the .tcshrc file in your home folder,
if you have one. (This is a hidden file.)
The current way to do this in Xubuntu 12.04 (xfce) is, no kidding,
- Check that pulseaudio-module-x11 is installed.
- Edit ~/.config/Terminal/terminalrc and change "MiscBell=FALSE"
- Edit /etc/pulse/default.pa as root and below "#load-sample-lazy
x11-bell /usr/share/sounds/gtk-events/activate.wav" add a line
"load-sample-lazy x11-bell /usr/share/sounds/purple/alert.wav" (the
final part should be an existing sound file on your system) and below
"#load-module module-x11-bell sample=bell-windowing-system" add a line
"load-module module-x11-bell sample=x11-bell"
- In a nonroot, i.e. your own, terminal, use "pulseaudio -k". Wait
a few seconds and the bell should now work.
Unfortunately, newer versions of linux operating systems are often not
compatible with older ones. The credo of linux is: "If it works,
change it. If it does not work, file a bug report." If you have a
problem installing l2h to a newly revised Debian-type operating
system, contact Leon van Dommelen for advice. For other installation
problems, first look in
Important: Updating l2h
Whenever you move l2h elsewhere, (which you should avoid doing if
possible), you must rerun install_l2h. Before doing so, exit all
other l2h windows. Afterwards you will also need to update all
document folders outside l2h that you are still working on. To update
a document folder, replace the "l2h_menu" file in it by
a copy of the updated one in the "example" folder of l2h.
L2h makes zero changes to your system. Simply delete the l2h
folder and the zip file in which you downloaded it and it is
completely gone. The other software you may have installed in order
to use l2h, like LaTeX, perl, ghostscript, pdftk, and pdftops will
have to be uninstalled each separately, typically using your package